Reading comprehension 7

Question :

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status : 100%

Information : i already done

Proof:

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated. While he was still a boy, his father and older brother died, and he became responsible for supporting his family. Like most of the children in his town, he attended school only two or three months a year. Later, with the help of several teachers, he was able to study law and become a member of the Massachusetts bar, but he never forgot those early struggles.

While serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education. Without regret, he gave up his successful legal practice and political career to become the first secretary of the board. There he exercised an enormous influence during the critical period of reconstruction that brought into existence the American graded elementary school as a substitute for the older district school system. Under his leadership, the curriculum was restructured, the school year was increased to a minimum of six months, and mandatory schooling was extended to age sixteen. Other important reforms that came into existence under Mann’s guidance included the establishment of state normal schools for teacher training, institutes for in service teacher education, and lyceums for adult education. He was also instrumental in improving salaries for teachers and creating school libraries.

Mann’s ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of Massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education. Considered quite radical at the time, the Massachusetts reforms later served as a model for the nation’s educational system. Mann was formally recognized as the father of public education.

During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers. In one of his last speeches he summed up his philosophy of education and life: “Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity.” Surely, his own life was an example of that philosophy.

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • adequate : memadai
  • struggles : berjuang
  • existance : keberadaan

3. Reread the text and answer the questions give

1. Which of the following titles would best express the main topic of the passage?
A. The Father of American Public Education
B. Philosophy of Education
C. The Massachusetts State Board of Education.
D. Politics of Educational Institutions

2. Why does the author mention Horace Mann’s early life?
A. As an example of the importance of an early education for success
B. To make the biography more complete
C. Because it served as the inspiration for his later work in education.
D. In tribute to the teachers who helped him succeed

3. The word struggles in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?
A. valuable experiences
B. happy situations
C. Influential people
D. difficult times.

4. The word there refers to?
A. the Massachusetts legislature.
B. the state board of education
C. Mann’s legal practice
D. his political career

5. The word mandatory in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
A. required.
B. equal
C. excellent
D. basic

6. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
A. Horace Mann’s influence on American education was very great.
B. A small but important influence on American education was exerted by Horace Mann
C. Few educators fully understood Horace Mann’s influence on American education
D. The influence on American education by Horace Mann was not accepted or appreciated

7. Horace Mann advocated all of the following EXCEPT?
A. a state board of education.
B. a district school system
C. classes for adult
D. graded elementary schools

8. The reforms that Horace Mann achieved
A. were not very radical for the time
B. were used only by the state of Massachusetts
C. were later adopted by the nation as a model.
D. were enforced by the Massachusetts bar

9. With which of the following statements would Horace Mann most probably agree?
A. Think in new ways
B. Help others
C. Study as much as possible.
D. Work hard

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Mungkin karena kurangnya sekolah yang memadai yang menginspirasi Horace Mann untuk bekerja begitu keras untuk menyelesaikan reformasi penting dalam pendidikan yang dia anjurkan. Ketika dia masih kecil, ayah dan kakak laki-lakinya meninggal, dan dia bertanggung jawab untuk mendukung keluarganya. Seperti kebanyakan anak-anak di kotanya, ia bersekolah hanya dua atau tiga bulan dalam setahun. Belakangan, dengan bantuan beberapa guru, dia bisa belajar hukum dan menjadi anggota bar Massachusetts, tetapi dia tidak pernah melupakan perjuangan awal itu.

Saat bertugas di badan legislatif Massachusetts, ia menandatangani undang-undang pendidikan bersejarah yang membentuk dewan pendidikan negara bagian. Tanpa penyesalan, ia melepaskan praktik hukum dan karier politiknya yang sukses untuk menjadi sekretaris pertama dewan. Di sana ia menggunakan pengaruh yang sangat besar selama masa kritis rekonstruksi yang menjadikan sekolah dasar Amerika bergradasi sebagai pengganti sistem sekolah distrik yang lebih tua. Di bawah kepemimpinannya, kurikulum direstrukturisasi, tahun sekolah ditingkatkan menjadi minimum enam bulan, dan sekolah wajib diperpanjang hingga usia enam belas tahun. Reformasi penting lainnya yang muncul di bawah bimbingan Mann termasuk pendirian sekolah normal negara untuk pelatihan guru, lembaga pendidikan guru layanan, dan bacaan untuk pendidikan orang dewasa. Dia juga berperan dalam meningkatkan gaji guru dan membuat perpustakaan sekolah.

Gagasan Mann tentang reformasi sekolah dikembangkan dan didistribusikan dalam dua belas laporan tahunan kepada negara bagian Massachusetts yang ia tulis selama masa jabatannya sebagai sekretaris pendidikan. Dianggap cukup radikal pada saat itu, reformasi Massachusetts kemudian menjadi model bagi sistem pendidikan bangsa. Mann secara resmi diakui sebagai bapak pendidikan publik.

Selama masa hidupnya, Horace Mann bekerja tanpa lelah untuk memperluas kesempatan pendidikan bagi keluarga agraris dan anak-anak dari pekerja miskin. Dalam salah satu pidatonya yang terakhir, dia menyimpulkan filosofi pendidikan dan kehidupannya: “Malu untuk mati sampai kamu memenangkan beberapa kemenangan bagi umat manusia.” Tentunya, hidupnya sendiri adalah contoh dari filosofi itu.

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

  • Paragraph 1

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated.

  • Paragraph 2

While serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education.

  • Paragraph 3

Mann’s ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of Massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education

  • Paragraph 4

During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers.

6. Make a summary of the passage

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated. While he was still a boy, his father and older brother died, and he became responsible for supporting his family. Like most of the children in his town, he attended school only two or three months a year. Later, with the help of several teachers, he was able to study law and become a member of the Massachusetts bar, but he never forgot those early struggles.

Reading comprehension 6

Question:

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status: 100%

Information : i already done

Proof:

 

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, negotiated withCanarsee chiefs for the purchase of Manhattan Island for merchandise valued at sixty guilders or about $24.12. He purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company.

The next year, Fort Amsterdam was built by the company at the extreme southern tip of the island. Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe. Consequently, the settlement became the most heterogeneous of the North American colonies. By 1637, the forthad expanded into the village of New Amsterdam, other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times. By 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages could be heard in New Amsterdam alone.

Among the multilingual settlers was a large group of English colonists from Connecticut and Massachusetts who supported the English King’s claim to all of New Netherlands set out in a charter that gave the territory to his brother James, Duke of New York. In 1644, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without resistance.

When the English acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. By the onset of the Revolution, New York City was already a bustling commercial center. After the war, it was selected as the first capital of the United States. Although the government was eventually moved, first to Philadelphia and then to Washington, D.C., New York maintained its status. It became a haven for pirates who conspired with leading merchants to exchange supplies for their ships in return for a share in the plunder. As a colony, New York exchanged many agricultural products for English manufactured goods. In addition, trade with the West Indies prospered. Three centuries after his initial trade with the Native Americans, Minuit’s tiny investment was worth more that seven billion dollars.

 

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • governor: gubernur
  • Consequently : sebagai akibat/alhasil.
  • linguistic: yang berkaitan dengan ilmu bahasa
  • multilingual: berbagai bahasa
  • formidable: hebat
  • maintained: merawat/dirawat
  • extreme: ekstrim

 

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

1. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

  • a. A History of New York City
  • b. An Account of the Dutch Colonies
  • c. A Biography of Peter Minuit
  • d. The First Capital of the United States

2. What did the Native Americans receive in exchange for their island?

  • a. Sixty Dutch guilders
  • b. $24.12 U. S.
  • c. Goods and supplies
  • d. Land in New Amsterdam

3. Where was New Amsterdam located?

  • a. In Holland
  • b. In North America
  • c. On the island of Manhattan
  • d. In India

4. What does the author mean by the statement :
Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe?

  • a. Other Europeans were given opportunities to immigrate to the new world after a slow response by the Dutch
  • b. Since the Dutch immigration was so successful, opportunities were provided for the Europeans to immigrate to the new world also
  • c. The Dutch took advantage of opportunities to immigrate to Europe instead of to the new world
  • d. Immigration to the new world required that the Dutch and other Europeans wait until opportunities were available

5. The word heterogeneous in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by …

  • a. liberal
  • b. renowned
  • c. diverse
  • d. prosperous

6. Why were so many languages spoken in New Amsterdam?

  • a. The Dutch West India Company was owned by England
  • b. The Dutch West India Company allowed freedom of speech
  • c. The Dutch West India Company recruited settlers from many different countries in Europe
  • d. The Indians who lived there before the Dutch West India Company purchase spoke many languages

7. The word formidable in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to …

  • a. powerful
  • b. modern
  • c. expensive
  • d. unexpected

8. The word it in paragraph 4 refers to …

  • a. Revolution
  • b. New York City
  • c. the island
  • d. the first capital

9. Which city was the first capital of the new Unite states?

  • a. New Amsterdam
  • b. New York
  • c. Philadelphia
  • d. Washington

10. On what date was Manhattan valued at $7 billion?

  • a. 1626
  • b. 1726
  • c. 1656
  • d. 1926

 

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Pada tahun 1626, Peter Minuit, gubernur dari pemukiman Belanda di Amerika Utara yang dikenal sebagai New Amsterdam, bernegosiasi dengan para kepala dari Canarsee untuk pembelian Pulau Manhattan untuk barang dagangan senilai enam puluh gulden atau sekitar $ 24,12. Dia membeli pulau itu untuk Perusahaan Hindia Belanda Barat.

Tahun berikutnya, Benteng Amsterdam dibangun oleh perusahaan di ujung selatan pulau yang ekstrem. Karena upaya untuk mendorong imigrasi Belanda tidak segera berhasil, penawaran, murah hati dengan standar era, diperluas ke seluruh Eropa. Akibatnya, pemukimannya menjadi yang paling heterogen dari koloni Amerika Utara. Pada 1637, benteng telah meluas ke desa New Amsterdam, komunitas kecil lainnya telah tumbuh di sekitarnya, termasuk New Haarlem dan Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, dan New Amsterdam mulai makmur, mengembangkan karakteristik toleransi agama dan bahasa yang tidak biasa pada zaman itu. Pada 1643, dilaporkan bahwa ada delapan belas bahasa yang berbeda yang dapat didengar di New Amsterdam.

Di antara pemukim multibahasa ada sekelompok besar penjajah Inggris dari Connecticut dan Massachusetts yang mendukung klaim dari Raja Inggris untuk semua Belanda Baru yang ditetapkan dalam piagam yang memberikan wilayah itu kepada saudaranya James, Duke of New York. Pada tahun 1644, ketika Inggris mengirim armada kapal perang yang hebat ke pelabuhan New Amsterdam, gubernur Belanda Peter Stuyvesant menyerah tanpa perlawanan.

Ketika Inggris memperoleh pulau itu, desa New Amsterdam diganti namanya menjadi New York untuk menghormati Duke. Pada awal Revolusi, New York City sudah menjadi pusat komersial yang sangat ramai. Setelah perang usai, kota itu dipilih sebagai ibu kota pertama Amerika Serikat. Meskipun pemerintah akhirnya memindahkan, pertama ke Philadelphia dan kemudian ke Washington, D.C., New York mempertahankan statusnya. Itu menjadi surga bagi para perompak yang berkonspirasi dengan pedagang-pedagang terkemuka untuk menukar pasokan dengan kapal mereka dengan imbalan bagian dalam penjarahan. Sebagai koloni, New York menukar banyak produk pertanian dengan barang-barang manufaktur Inggris. Selain itu, perdagangan dengan Hindia Barat makmur. Tiga abad setelah perdagangan pertamanya dengan penduduk asli Amerika, investasi kecil Minuit bernilai lebih dari tujuh miliar dolar.

 

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

  • Paragraph 1

Negotiate for the purchase of the island manhattan for merchandise, he bought the island for the Dutch West India Company.

  • Paragraph 2

Fort has been extended to the village of New Amsterdam, the other small communities have grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant Bouwery, In 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages ​​can be heard in New Amsterdam alone.

  • Paragraph 3

Dutch stipulated in the charter that gives the region to his brother James, Duke of New York. when Britain sent armada of warships to the port of New Amsterdam, the Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without a fight.

  • Paragraph 4

When the British acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. New York City has become a bustling commercial center was selected as the first capital of the United States.

 

6. Make a summary of the passage

In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company. By 1637, the fort had expanded into the village of New Amsterdam, other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times. By 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages could be heard in New Amsterdam alone. In 1644, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without resistance. Three centuries after his initial trade with the Native Americans, Minuit’s tiny investment was worth more that seven billion dollars.

Reading Comprehension 6

Question:

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status: 100% DONE

Info: I’ve already done this Assignments

Prove:

 

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, negotiated with Canarsee chiefs for the purchase of Manhattan Island for merchandise valued at sixty guilders or about $24.12. He purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company.

            The next year, Fort Amsterdam was built by the company at the extreme southern tip of the island. Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe. Consequently, the settlement became the most heterogeneous of the North American colonies. By 1637, the fort had expanded into the village of New Amsterdam, other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times. By 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages could be heard in New Amsterdam alone.

            Among the multilingual settlers was a large group of English colonists from Connecticut and Massachusetts who supported the English King’s claim to all of New Netherlands set out in a charter that gave the territory to his brother James, Duke of New York. In 1644, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without resistance.

            When the English acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. By the onset of the Revolution, New York City was already a bustling commercial center. After the war, it was selected as the first capital of the United States. Although the government was eventually moved, first to Philadelphia and then to Washington, D.C., New York maintained its status. It became a haven for pirates who conspired with leading merchants to exchange supplies for their ships in return for a share in the plunder. As a colony, New York exchanged many agricultural products for English manufactured goods. In addition, trade with the West Indies prospered. Three centuries after his initial trade with the Native Americans, Minuit’s tiny investment was worth more that seven billion dollars.

 

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • governor: gubernur
  • negotiated: merundingkan/dirundingkan
  • Consequently : sebagai akibat/alhasil.
  • developing: mengembangkan
  • linguistic: yang berkaitan dengan ilmu bahasa
  • multilingual: berbagai bahasa
  • formidable: hebat
  • maintained: merawat/dirawat
  • extreme: ekstrim
  • encourage: membesarkan hati

 

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

1. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

  • a. A History of New York City
  • b. An Account of the Dutch Colonies
  • c. A Biography of Peter Minuit
  • d. The First Capital of the United States

2. What did the Native Americans receive in exchange for their island?

  • a. Sixty Dutch guilders
  • b. $24.12 U. S.
  • c. Goods and supplies
  • d. Land in New Amsterdam

3. Where was New Amsterdam located?

  • a. In Holland
  • b. In North America
  • c. On the island of Manhattan
  • d. In India

4. What does the author mean by the statement :
Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe?

  • a. Other Europeans were given opportunities to immigrate to the new world after a slow response by the Dutch
  • b. Since the Dutch immigration was so successful, opportunities were provided for the Europeans to immigrate to the new world also
  • c. The Dutch took advantage of opportunities to immigrate to Europe instead of to the new world
  • d. Immigration to the new world required that the Dutch and other Europeans wait until opportunities were available

5. The word heterogeneous in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by …

  • a. liberal
  • b. renowned
  • c. diverse
  • d. prosperous

6. Why were so many languages spoken in New Amsterdam?

  • a. The Dutch West India Company was owned by England
  • b. The Dutch West India Company allowed freedom of speech
  • c. The Dutch West India Company recruited settlers from many different countries in Europe
  • d. The Indians who lived there before the Dutch West India Company purchase spoke many languages

7. The word formidable in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to …

  • a. powerful
  • b. modern
  • c. expensive
  • d. unexpected

8. The word it in paragraph 4 refers to …

  • a. Revolution
  • b. New York City
  • c. the island
  • d. the first capital

9. Which city was the first capital of the new Unite states?

  • a. New Amsterdam
  • b. New York
  • c. Philadelphia
  • d. Washington

10. On what date was Manhattan valued at $7 billion?

  • a. 1626
  • b. 1726
  • c. 1656
  • d. 1926

 

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Pada tahun 1626, Peter Minuit, gubernur dari pemukiman Belanda di Amerika Utara yang dikenal sebagai New Amsterdam, bernegosiasi dengan para kepala dari Canarsee untuk pembelian Pulau Manhattan untuk barang dagangan senilai enam puluh gulden atau sekitar $ 24,12. Dia membeli pulau itu untuk Perusahaan Hindia Belanda Barat.

Tahun berikutnya, Benteng Amsterdam dibangun oleh perusahaan di ujung selatan pulau yang ekstrem. Karena upaya untuk mendorong imigrasi Belanda tidak segera berhasil, penawaran, murah hati dengan standar era, diperluas ke seluruh Eropa. Akibatnya, pemukimannya menjadi yang paling heterogen dari koloni Amerika Utara. Pada 1637, benteng telah meluas ke desa New Amsterdam, komunitas kecil lainnya telah tumbuh di sekitarnya, termasuk New Haarlem dan Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, dan New Amsterdam mulai makmur, mengembangkan karakteristik toleransi agama dan bahasa yang tidak biasa pada zaman itu. Pada 1643, dilaporkan bahwa ada delapan belas bahasa yang berbeda yang dapat didengar di New Amsterdam.

Di antara pemukim multibahasa ada sekelompok besar penjajah Inggris dari Connecticut dan Massachusetts yang mendukung klaim dari Raja Inggris untuk semua Belanda Baru yang ditetapkan dalam piagam yang memberikan wilayah itu kepada saudaranya James, Duke of New York. Pada tahun 1644, ketika Inggris mengirim armada kapal perang yang hebat ke pelabuhan New Amsterdam, gubernur Belanda Peter Stuyvesant menyerah tanpa perlawanan.

Ketika Inggris memperoleh pulau itu, desa New Amsterdam diganti namanya menjadi New York untuk menghormati Duke. Pada awal Revolusi, New York City sudah menjadi pusat komersial yang sangat ramai. Setelah perang usai, kota itu dipilih sebagai ibu kota pertama Amerika Serikat. Meskipun pemerintah akhirnya memindahkan, pertama ke Philadelphia dan kemudian ke Washington, D.C., New York mempertahankan statusnya. Itu menjadi surga bagi para perompak yang berkonspirasi dengan pedagang-pedagang terkemuka untuk menukar pasokan dengan kapal mereka dengan imbalan bagian dalam penjarahan. Sebagai koloni, New York menukar banyak produk pertanian dengan barang-barang manufaktur Inggris. Selain itu, perdagangan dengan Hindia Barat makmur. Tiga abad setelah perdagangan pertamanya dengan penduduk asli Amerika, investasi kecil Minuit bernilai lebih dari tujuh miliar dolar.

 

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

  • Paragraph 1

Negotiate for the purchase of the island manhattan for merchandise, he bought the island for the Dutch West India Company.

  • Paragraph 2

Fort has been extended to the village of New Amsterdam, the other small communities have grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant Bouwery, In 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages ​​can be heard in New Amsterdam alone.

  • Paragraph 3

Dutch stipulated in the charter that gives the region to his brother James, Duke of New York. when Britain sent armada of warships to the port of New Amsterdam, the Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without a fight.

  • Paragraph 4

When the British acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. New York City has become a bustling commercial center was selected as the first capital of the United States.

 

6. Make a summary of the passage

In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company. By 1637, the fort had expanded into the village of New Amsterdam, other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times. By 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages could be heard in New Amsterdam alone. In 1644, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without resistance. Three centuries after his initial trade with the Native Americans, Minuit’s tiny investment was worth more that seven billion dollars.

Reading Comprehension 7

Pertanyaan :

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status : Tercapai

Keterangan : Saya sudah mengerjakan tugas dengan baik dan benar

Bukti :

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated. While he was still a boy, his father and older brother died, and he became responsible for supporting his family. Like most of the children in his town, he attended school only two or three months a year. Later, with the help of several teachers, he was able to study law and become a member of the Massachusetts bar, but he never forgot those early struggles.

While serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education. Without regret, he gave up his successful legal practice and political career to become the first secretary of the board. There he exercised an enormous influence during the critical period of reconstruction that brought into existence the American graded elementary school as a substitute for the older district school system. Under his leadership, the curriculum was restructured, the school year was increased to a minimum of six months, and mandatory schooling was extended to age sixteen. Other important reforms that came into existence under Mann’s guidance included the establishment of state normal schools for teacher training, institutes for in service teacher education, and lyceums for adult education. He was also instrumental in improving salaries for teachers and creating school libraries.

Mann’s ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of Massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education. Considered quite radical at the time, the Massachusetts reforms later served as a model for the nation’s educational system. Mann was formally recognized as the father of public education.

During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers. In one of his last speeches he summed up his philosophy of education and life: “Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity.” Surely, his own life was an example of that philosophy.

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • adequate : memadai
  • struggles : berjuang
  • enormous : besar sekali
  • existance : keberadaan

3. Reread the text and answer the questions give

1. Which of the following titles would best express the main topic of the passage?
A. The Father of American Public Education
B. Philosophy of Education
C. The Massachusetts State Board of Education.
D. Politics of Educational Institutions

2. Why does the author mention Horace Mann’s early life?
A. As an example of the importance of an early education for success
B. To make the biography more complete
C. Because it served as the inspiration for his later work in education.
D. In tribute to the teachers who helped him succeed

3. The word struggles in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?
A. valuable experiences
B. happy situations
C. Influential people
D. difficult times.

4. The word there refers to?
A. the Massachusetts legislature.
B. the state board of education
C. Mann’s legal practice
D. his political career

5. The word mandatory in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
A. required.
B. equal
C. excellent
D. basic

6. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
A. Horace Mann’s influence on American education was very great.
B. A small but important influence on American education was exerted by Horace Mann
C. Few educators fully understood Horace Mann’s influence on American education
D. The influence on American education by Horace Mann was not accepted or appreciated

7. Horace Mann advocated all of the following EXCEPT?
A. a state board of education.
B. a district school system
C. classes for adult
D. graded elementary schools

8. The reforms that Horace Mann achieved
A. were not very radical for the time
B. were used only by the state of Massachusetts
C. were later adopted by the nation as a model.
D. were enforced by the Massachusetts bar

9. With which of the following statements would Horace Mann most probably agree?
A. Think in new ways
B. Help others
C. Study as much as possible.
D. Work hard

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Mungkin karena kurangnya sekolah yang memadai yang menginspirasi Horace Mann untuk bekerja begitu keras untuk menyelesaikan reformasi penting dalam pendidikan yang dia anjurkan. Ketika dia masih kecil, ayah dan kakak laki-lakinya meninggal, dan dia bertanggung jawab untuk mendukung keluarganya. Seperti kebanyakan anak-anak di kotanya, ia bersekolah hanya dua atau tiga bulan dalam setahun. Belakangan, dengan bantuan beberapa guru, dia bisa belajar hukum dan menjadi anggota bar Massachusetts, tetapi dia tidak pernah melupakan perjuangan awal itu.

Saat bertugas di badan legislatif Massachusetts, ia menandatangani undang-undang pendidikan bersejarah yang membentuk dewan pendidikan negara bagian. Tanpa penyesalan, ia melepaskan praktik hukum dan karier politiknya yang sukses untuk menjadi sekretaris pertama dewan. Di sana ia menggunakan pengaruh yang sangat besar selama masa kritis rekonstruksi yang menjadikan sekolah dasar Amerika bergradasi sebagai pengganti sistem sekolah distrik yang lebih tua. Di bawah kepemimpinannya, kurikulum direstrukturisasi, tahun sekolah ditingkatkan menjadi minimum enam bulan, dan sekolah wajib diperpanjang hingga usia enam belas tahun. Reformasi penting lainnya yang muncul di bawah bimbingan Mann termasuk pendirian sekolah normal negara untuk pelatihan guru, lembaga pendidikan guru layanan, dan bacaan untuk pendidikan orang dewasa. Dia juga berperan dalam meningkatkan gaji guru dan membuat perpustakaan sekolah.

Gagasan Mann tentang reformasi sekolah dikembangkan dan didistribusikan dalam dua belas laporan tahunan kepada negara bagian Massachusetts yang ia tulis selama masa jabatannya sebagai sekretaris pendidikan. Dianggap cukup radikal pada saat itu, reformasi Massachusetts kemudian menjadi model bagi sistem pendidikan bangsa. Mann secara resmi diakui sebagai bapak pendidikan publik.

Selama masa hidupnya, Horace Mann bekerja tanpa lelah untuk memperluas kesempatan pendidikan bagi keluarga agraris dan anak-anak dari pekerja miskin. Dalam salah satu pidatonya yang terakhir, dia menyimpulkan filosofi pendidikan dan kehidupannya: “Malu untuk mati sampai kamu memenangkan beberapa kemenangan bagi umat manusia.” Tentunya, hidupnya sendiri adalah contoh dari filosofi itu.

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

  • Paragraph 1

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated.

  • Paragraph 2

While serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education.

  • Paragraph 3

Mann’s ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of Massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education

  • Paragraph 4

During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers.

6. Make a summary of the passage

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated. While he was still a boy, his father and older brother died, and he became responsible for supporting his family. Like most of the children in his town, he attended school only two or three months a year. Later, with the help of several teachers, he was able to study law and become a member of the Massachusetts bar, but he never forgot those early struggles.

Reading Comprehension 6

Pertanyaan :

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status : Tercapai

Keterangan : Saya sudah mengerjakan tugas dengan baik dan benar

Bukti :

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

Peter Minuit, Pierre Minuit or Peter Minnewit (1580 – August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. He was the Director-General of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1633, and he founded the Swedish colony of New Sweden in 1638. According to tradition, Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from Native Americans on May 24, 1626 for 60 guilders, which has traditionally been said to be the equivalent of $24 USD. In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, negotiated with Canarsee chiefs for the purchase of Manhattan Island for merchandise valued at sixty guilders or about $24.12. He purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company.

The next year, Fort Amsterdam was built by the company at the extreme southern tip of the island. Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe. Consequently, the settlement became the most heterogeneous of the North American colonies. By 1637, the fort had expanded into the village of New Amsterdam, other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times. By 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages could be heard in New Amsterdam alone.

Among the multilingual settlers was a large group of English colonists from Connecticut and Massachusetts who supported the English King’s claim to all of New Netherlands set out in a charter that gave the territory to his brother James, Duke of New York. In 1644, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without resistance.

When the English acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. By the onset of the Revolution, New York City was already a bustling commercial center. After the war, it was selected as the first capital of the United States. Although the government was eventually moved, first to Philadelphia and then to Washington, D.C., New York maintained its status. It became a haven for pirates who conspired with leading merchants to exchange supplies for their ships in return for a share in the plunder. As a colony, New York exchanged many agricultural products for English manufactured goods. In addition, trade with the West Indies prospered. Three centuries after his initial trade with the Native Americans, Minuit’s tiny investment was worth more that seven billion dollars.

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • territory : Wilayah
  • equivalent : Setara
  • tip of the island = Ujung Pulau

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

1. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?
a. A History of New York City
b. An Account of the Dutch Colonies
c. A Biography of Peter Minuit
d. The First Capital of the United States

2. What did the Native Americans receive in exchange for their island?
a. Sixty Dutch guilders
b. $24.12 U. S.
c. Goods and supplies
d. Land in New Amsterdam

3. Where was New Amsterdam located?
a. In Holland
b. In North America
c. On the island of Manhattan
d. In India

4. What does the author mean by the statement :
Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe?

a. Other Europeans were given opportunities to immigrate to the new world after a slow response by the Dutch
b. Since the Dutch immigration was so successful, opportunities were provided for the Europeans to immigrate to the new world also
c. The Dutch took advantage of opportunities to immigrate to Europe instead of to the new world
d. Immigration to the new world required that the Dutch and other Europeans wait until opportunities were available

5. The word heterogeneous in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by …
a. liberal
b. renowned
c. diverse
d. prosperous

6. Why were so many languages spoken in New Amsterdam?
a. The Dutch West India Company was owned by England
b. The Dutch West India Company allowed freedom of speech
c. The Dutch West India Company recruited settlers from many different countries in Europe
d. The Indians who lived there before the Dutch West India Company purchase spoke many languages

7. The word formidable in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to …
a. powerful
b. modern
c. expensive
d. unexpected

8. The word it in paragraph 4 refers to …
a. Revolution
b. New York City
c. the island
d. the first capital

9. Which city was the first capital of the new Unite states?
a. New Amsterdam
b. New York
c. Philadelphia
d. Washington

10. On what date was Manhattan valued at $7 billion?
a. 1626
b. 1726
c. 1656
d. 1926

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Peter Minuit, Pierre Minuit atau Peter Minnewit (1580 – 5 Agustus 1638) adalah seorang Walloon dari Wesel, yang sekarang menjadi Rhine-Westphalia Utara, Jerman, yang saat itu merupakan bagian dari Kadipaten Cleves. Dia adalah Direktur Jenderal koloni Belanda New Netherland dari 1626 hingga 1633, dan ia mendirikan koloni Swedia Swedia Baru pada 1638. Menurut tradisi, Minuit membeli pulau Manhattan dari penduduk asli Amerika pada 24 Mei 1626 seharga 60 gulden, yang secara tradisional dikatakan setara dengan $ 24 USD. Pada 1626, Peter Minuit, gubernur pemukiman Belanda di Amerika Utara yang dikenal sebagai New Amsterdam, bernegosiasi dengan para kepala Canarsee untuk pembelian Pulau Manhattan untuk barang dagangan senilai enam puluh gulden atau sekitar $ 24,12. Dia membeli pulau itu untuk Perusahaan Hindia Belanda Barat.

Tahun berikutnya, Benteng Amsterdam dibangun oleh perusahaan di ujung selatan pulau yang ekstrem. Karena upaya untuk mendorong imigrasi Belanda tidak segera berhasil, penawaran, murah hati dengan standar era, diperluas ke seluruh Eropa. Akibatnya, pemukiman menjadi yang paling heterogen dari koloni Amerika Utara. Pada 1637, benteng telah meluas ke desa New Amsterdam, komunitas kecil lainnya telah tumbuh di sekitarnya, termasuk New Haarlem dan Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, dan New Amsterdam mulai makmur, mengembangkan karakteristik toleransi agama dan bahasa yang tidak biasa untuk zaman itu. Pada 1643, dilaporkan bahwa delapan belas bahasa yang berbeda dapat didengar di New Amsterdam saja.

Di antara para pemukim multibahasa adalah sekelompok besar penjajah Inggris dari Connecticut dan Massachusetts yang mendukung klaim Raja Inggris untuk semua Belanda Baru yang ditetapkan dalam piagam yang memberikan wilayah itu kepada saudaranya James, Duke of New York. Pada tahun 1644, ketika Inggris mengirim armada kapal perang yang hebat ke pelabuhan New Amsterdam, gubernur Belanda Peter Stuyvesant menyerah tanpa perlawanan.

Ketika Inggris memperoleh pulau itu, desa New Amsterdam diganti namanya menjadi New York untuk menghormati Duke. Pada awal Revolusi, New York City sudah menjadi pusat komersial yang ramai. Setelah perang, kota itu dipilih sebagai ibu kota pertama Amerika Serikat. Meskipun pemerintah akhirnya dipindahkan, pertama ke Philadelphia dan kemudian ke Washington, D.C., New York mempertahankan statusnya. Itu menjadi surga bagi para perompak yang berkonspirasi dengan pedagang-pedagang terkemuka untuk menukar pasokan dengan kapal mereka dengan imbalan bagian dalam penjarahan. Sebagai koloni, New York menukar banyak produk pertanian dengan barang-barang manufaktur Inggris. Selain itu, perdagangan dengan Hindia Barat makmur. Tiga abad setelah perdagangan pertamanya dengan penduduk asli Amerika, investasi kecil Minuit bernilai lebih dari tujuh miliar dolar.

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

  • Paragraph 1

In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, negotiated with Canarsee chiefs for the purchase of Manhattan Island for merchandise valued at sixty guilders or about $24.12. He purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company

  • Paragraph 2

The next year, Fort Amsterdam was built by the company at the extreme southern tip of the island.

  • Paragraph 3

Among the multilingual settlers was a large group of English colonists from Connecticut and Massachusetts who supported the English King’s claim to all of New Netherlands set out in a charter that gave the territory to his brother James, Duke of New York. In 1644, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without resistance.

  • Paragraph 4

When the English acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. By the onset of the Revolution, New York City was already a bustling commercial center.

6. Make a summary of the passage

 In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, negotiated with Canarsee chiefs for the purchase of Manhattan Island for merchandise valued at sixty guilders or about $24.12. He purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company.  The next year, Fort Amsterdam was built by the company at the extreme southern tip of the island. Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe. Consequently, the settlement became the most heterogeneous of the North American colonies. By 1637, the fort had expanded into the village of New Amsterdam, other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times.

Reading comprehension 5

Question:

1.  Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status: 100%

Info: I already done

Prove:

1.  Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves. Some women saw similarities in the social status of women and slaves. Women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone were not only feminists who fought for the rights of women but also fervent abolitionists who fought to do away with slavery. These brave people were social leaders who supported the rights of both women and blacks. They were fighting against a belief that voting should be tied to land ownership, and because land was owned by men, and in some cases by their widows, only those who held the greatest stake in government, that is the male landowners, were considered worthy of the vote. Women did not conform to the requirements.

A number of male abolitionists, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities. Probably more than any other movement, abolitionism offered women a previously denied entry into politics. They became involved primarilyin order to better their living conditions and improve the conditions of others. However, they gained the respect of those they convinced and also earned the right to be considered equal citizens.

When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women. Discouraged but resolved, feminists worked tirelessly to influence more and more women to demand the right to vote. In 1869, the Wyoming Territory had yielded to demands by feminists, but the states on the East Coast resisted more stubbornly than before. A women’s suffrage bill had been presented to every Congress since 1878, but it continually failed to pass until 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote.

 

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • Primarily: Semula
  • Civil war: Perang saudara
  • Amendments: Perubahan
  • Constitution: Konstitusi
  • Discouraged: Menakut nakuti
  • Resolved: Memecahkan

 

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?

A. The Wyoming Territory
B. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
C. Abolitionists
D. Women’s suffrage

2. The word ban in paragraph 1 most nearly means to?

A. Encourage
B. Publish
C. Prohibit
D. Limit

3. The word primarily in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?

A. above all
B. Somewhat
C. finally
D. always

4. What had occurred shortly after the Civil War?

A. The Wyoming Territory was admitted to the Union
B. A women’s suffrage bill was introduced in Congress
C. The eastern states resisted the end of the war
D. Black people were granted the right to vote

5. The word suffrage in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?

A. pain
B. Citizenship
C. freedom from bondage
D. the right to vote

6. The word it in paragraph 3 refers to?

A. bill
B. Congress
C. Nineteenth Amendment
D. vote

7. What does the Nineteenth Amendment guarantee?

A. Voting rights for blacks
B. Citizenship for blacks
C. Voting rights for women
D. Citizenship for women

8. When were women allowed to vote throughout the United States?

A. After 1866
B. After 1870
C. After 1878
D. After 1920

 

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Pada selama abad kesembilan belas, wanita di Amerika Serikat mengorganisir dan berpartisipasi dalam sejumlah besar gerakan reformasi, termasuk gerakan untuk mengatur kembali sistem penjara, meningkatkan pendidikan, melarang penjualan alkohol, memberikan hak kepada orang-orang yang hak nya ditolak, dan, sebagian besar penting, Membebaskan Budak. Beberapa wanita melihat kesamaan dalam status sosial wanita dan budak. Wanita seperti Elizabeth Cady Stanton dan Lucy Stone bukan satu-satunya feminis yang memperjuangkan hak-hak perempuan, tetapi juga kaum abolisionis yang berjuang keras untuk menyingkirkan perbudakan. Orang-orang pemberani ini adalah para pemimpin sosial yang mendukung hak-hak perempuan dan kulit hitam. Mereka berjuang melawan keyakinan bahwa pemungutan suara harus dikaitkan dengan kepemilikan tanah, dan karena tanah dimiliki oleh laki-laki, dan dalam beberapa kasus oleh janda mereka, hanya mereka yang memegang saham terbesar dalam pemerintahan, yaitu pemilik tanah laki-laki, yang dianggap layak. suara. Perempuan tidak memenuhi persyaratan.

Sejumlah pria abolisionis , termasuk William Lloyd Garrison dan Wendell Phillips, juga mendukung hak-hak wanita untuk berbicara dan berpartisipasi secara setara dalam kegiatan anti-layanan. Mungkin lebih dari gerakan lainnya, abolisionisme menawarkan perempuan yang sebelumnya ditolak masuk ke politik. Mereka terutama terlibat dalam rangka meningkatkan kondisi kehidupan mereka dan meningkatkan kondisi orang lain. Namun, mereka mendapatkan rasa hormat dari orang-orang yang mereka percayai dan juga mendapatkan hak untuk dianggap warga negara yang setara.

Ketika perang saudara antara Korea Utara dan Selatan berakhir pada tahun 1865, Amandemen Konstitusi Keempat Belas dan Kelima Belas diadopsi pada tahun 1868 dan 1870 memberikan kewarganegaraan dan hak pilih untuk orang kulit hitam tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Berkecil hati tetapi terselesaikan, para feminis bekerja secara nirkabel untuk memengaruhi semakin banyak perempuan untuk menuntut hak untuk memilih. Pada tahun 1869, Wilayah Wyoming telah menyerah pada tuntutan kaum feminis, tetapi negara-negara di Pantai Timur ditentang lebih keras kepala daripada sebelumnya. RUU hak pilih seorang wanita telah disampaikan kepada setiap Kongres sejak 1878, tetapi terus gagal meloloskannya hingga 1920, ketika Amandemen Kesembilan Belas memberi perempuan hak untuk memilih.

 

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

Paragraph 1 

During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements for Woman Rights

Paragraph 2

A number of male abolitionists supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities.

Paragraph 3

The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women.

 

6. Make a summary of the passage

Women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves and for Woman Rights. Not just woman male abolitionists supported the rights of women like William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities. When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women.

 

Reading Comprehension 5

Question:

1.  Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status: 100% DONE

Info: I’ve already done this Assignments

Prove:

1.  Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

 During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves. Some women saw similarities in the social status of women and slaves. Women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone were not only feminists who fought for the rights of women but also fervent abolitionists who fought to do away with slavery. These brave people were social leaders who supported the rights of both women and blacks. They were fighting against a belief that voting should be tied to land ownership, and because land was owned by men, and in some cases by their widows, only those who held the greatest stake in government, that is the male landowners, were considered worthy of the vote. Women did not conform to the requirements.

            A number of male abolitionists, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities. Probably more than any other movement, abolitionism offered women a previously denied entry into politics. They became involved primarily in order to better their living conditions and improve the conditions of others. However, they gained the respect of those they convinced and also earned the right to be considered equal citizens.

            When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women. Discouraged but resolved, feminists worked tirelessly to influence more and more women to demand the right to vote. In 1869, the Wyoming Territory had yielded to demands by feminists, but the states on the East Coast resisted more stubbornly than before. A women’s suffrage bill had been presented to every Congress since 1878, but it continually failed to pass until 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote.

 

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • Primarily: Semula
  • Citizens: Warga Negara/Kota
  • Civil war: Perang saudara
  • Amendments: Perubahan
  • Constitution: Konstitusi
  • Suffrage: Hak memilih
  • Discouraged: Menakut nakuti
  • Resolved: Memecahkan
  • Tirelessly: Tak kenal lelah
  • Influence: Mempengaruhi

 

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?

A. The Wyoming Territory
B. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
C. Abolitionists
D. Women’s suffrage

2. The word ban in paragraph 1 most nearly means to?

A. Encourage
B. Publish
C. Prohibit
D. Limit

3. The word primarily in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?

A. above all
B. Somewhat
C. finally
D. always

4. What had occurred shortly after the Civil War?

A. The Wyoming Territory was admitted to the Union
B. A women’s suffrage bill was introduced in Congress
C. The eastern states resisted the end of the war
D. Black people were granted the right to vote

5. The word suffrage in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?

A. pain
B. Citizenship
C. freedom from bondage
D. the right to vote

6. The word it in paragraph 3 refers to?

A. bill
B. Congress
C. Nineteenth Amendment
D. vote

7. What does the Nineteenth Amendment guarantee?

A. Voting rights for blacks
B. Citizenship for blacks
C. Voting rights for women
D. Citizenship for women

8. When were women allowed to vote throughout the United States?

A. After 1866
B. After 1870
C. After 1878
D. After 1920

 

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Pada selama abad kesembilan belas, wanita di Amerika Serikat mengorganisir dan berpartisipasi dalam sejumlah besar gerakan reformasi, termasuk gerakan untuk mengatur kembali sistem penjara, meningkatkan pendidikan, melarang penjualan alkohol, memberikan hak kepada orang-orang yang hak nya ditolak, dan, sebagian besar penting, Membebaskan Budak. Beberapa wanita melihat kesamaan dalam status sosial wanita dan budak. Wanita seperti Elizabeth Cady Stanton dan Lucy Stone bukan satu-satunya feminis yang memperjuangkan hak-hak perempuan, tetapi juga kaum abolisionis yang berjuang keras untuk menyingkirkan perbudakan. Orang-orang pemberani ini adalah para pemimpin sosial yang mendukung hak-hak perempuan dan kulit hitam. Mereka berjuang melawan keyakinan bahwa pemungutan suara harus dikaitkan dengan kepemilikan tanah, dan karena tanah dimiliki oleh laki-laki, dan dalam beberapa kasus oleh janda mereka, hanya mereka yang memegang saham terbesar dalam pemerintahan, yaitu pemilik tanah laki-laki, yang dianggap layak. suara. Perempuan tidak memenuhi persyaratan.

Sejumlah pria abolisionis , termasuk William Lloyd Garrison dan Wendell Phillips, juga mendukung hak-hak wanita untuk berbicara dan berpartisipasi secara setara dalam kegiatan anti-layanan. Mungkin lebih dari gerakan lainnya, abolisionisme menawarkan perempuan yang sebelumnya ditolak masuk ke politik. Mereka terutama terlibat dalam rangka meningkatkan kondisi kehidupan mereka dan meningkatkan kondisi orang lain. Namun, mereka mendapatkan rasa hormat dari orang-orang yang mereka percayai dan juga mendapatkan hak untuk dianggap warga negara yang setara.

Ketika perang saudara antara Korea Utara dan Selatan berakhir pada tahun 1865, Amandemen Konstitusi Keempat Belas dan Kelima Belas diadopsi pada tahun 1868 dan 1870 memberikan kewarganegaraan dan hak pilih untuk orang kulit hitam tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Berkecil hati tetapi terselesaikan, para feminis bekerja secara nirkabel untuk memengaruhi semakin banyak perempuan untuk menuntut hak untuk memilih. Pada tahun 1869, Wilayah Wyoming telah menyerah pada tuntutan kaum feminis, tetapi negara-negara di Pantai Timur ditentang lebih keras kepala daripada sebelumnya. RUU hak pilih seorang wanita telah disampaikan kepada setiap Kongres sejak 1878, tetapi terus gagal meloloskannya hingga 1920, ketika Amandemen Kesembilan Belas memberi perempuan hak untuk memilih.

 

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

Paragraph 1 

During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements for Woman Rights

Paragraph 2

A number of male abolitionists supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities.

Paragraph 3

The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women.

 

6. Make a summary of the passage

Women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves and for Woman Rights. Not just woman male abolitionists supported the rights of women like William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities. When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women.

 

 

Reading Comprehension 5

Pertanyaan :

1.  Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status : Tercapai

Keterangan : Saya sudah mengerjakan tugas dengan baik dan benar

Bukti :

1.  Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

            During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves. Some women saw similarities in the social status of women and slaves. Women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone were not only feminists who fought for the rights of women but also fervent abolitionists who fought to do away with slavery. These brave people were social leaders who supported the rights of both women and blacks. They were fighting against a belief that voting should be tied to land ownership, and because land was owned by men, and in some cases by their widows, only those who held the greatest stake in government, that is the male landowners, were considered worthy of the vote. Women did not conform to the requirements.

            A number of male abolitionists, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities. Probably more than any other movement, abolitionism offered women a previously denied entry into politics. They became involved primarily in order to better their living conditions and improve the conditions of others. However, they gained the respect of those they convinced and also earned the right to be considered equal citizens.

            When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women. Discouraged but resolved, feminists worked tirelessly to influence more and more women to demand the right to vote. In 1869, the Wyoming Territory had yielded to demands by feminists, but the states on the East Coast resisted more stubbornly than before. A women’s suffrage bill had been presented to every Congress since 1878, but it continually failed to pass until 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote.

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  • Reorganize : mengatur
  • Similarities : kesamaan
  • abolitionism : sebuah kebangkitan yang ingin menyingkirkan perbudakan di Eropa dan di Amerika
  • tirelessly : tanpa lelah

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

1.With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?
A. The Wyoming Territory
B. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
C. Abolitionists
D. Women’s suffrage

2.The word ban in paragraph 1 most nearly means to?
A. Encourage
B. Publish
C. Prohibit
D. Limit

3.The word primarily in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
A. above all
B. Somewhat
C. finally
D. always

4.What had occurred shortly after the Civil War?
A. The Wyoming Territory was admitted to the Union
B. A women’s suffrage bill was introduced in Congress
C. The eastern states resisted the end of the war
D. Black people were granted the right to vote

5.The word suffrage in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?
A. pain
B. Citizenship
C. freedom from bondage
D. the right to vote

6.The word it in paragraph 3 refers to?
A. bill
B. Congress
C. Nineteenth Amendment
D. vote

7.What does the Nineteenth Amendment guarantee?
A. Voting rights for blacks
B. Citizenship for blacks
C. Voting rights for women
D. Citizenship for women

8.When were women allowed to vote throughout the United States?

A. After 1866
B. After 1870
C. After 1878
D. After 1920

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Selama abad kesembilan belas, wanita di Amerika Serikat mengorganisir dan berpartisipasi dalam sejumlah besar gerakan reformasi, termasuk gerakan untuk mengatur kembali sistem penjara, meningkatkan pendidikan, melarang penjualan alkohol, memberikan hak kepada orang-orang yang ditolak, dan, sebagian besar penting, budak gratis. Beberapa wanita melihat kesamaan dalam status sosial wanita dan budak. Wanita seperti Elizabeth Cady Stanton dan Lucy Stone tidak hanya kaum feminis yang memperjuangkan hak-hak wanita, tetapi juga kaum abolisionis yang berjuang keras untuk menyingkirkan perbudakan. Orang-orang pemberani ini adalah para pemimpin sosial yang mendukung hak-hak perempuan dan kulit hitam. Mereka berjuang melawan keyakinan bahwa pemungutan suara harus dikaitkan dengan kepemilikan tanah, dan karena tanah dimiliki oleh laki-laki, dan dalam beberapa kasus oleh janda mereka, hanya mereka yang memegang saham terbesar dalam pemerintahan, yaitu pemilik tanah laki-laki, yang dianggap layak. suara. Perempuan tidak memenuhi persyaratan.

Sejumlah abolisionis pria, termasuk William Lloyd Garrison dan Wendell Phillips, juga mendukung hak-hak wanita untuk berbicara dan untuk berpartisipasi secara setara dengan pria dalam kegiatan anti-pencurian. Mungkin lebih dari gerakan lainnya, abolisionisme menawarkan perempuan yang sebelumnya ditolak masuk ke politik. Mereka menjadi terlibat terutama untuk memperbaiki kondisi kehidupan mereka dan meningkatkan kondisi orang lain. Namun, mereka mendapatkan rasa hormat dari orang-orang yang mereka yakini dan juga mendapatkan hak untuk dianggap warga negara yang setara.

Ketika perang saudara antara Korea Utara dan Selatan berakhir pada tahun 1865, Amandemen Konstitusi Keempat Belas dan Kelima Belas diadopsi pada tahun 1868 dan 1870 memberikan kewarganegaraan dan hak pilih untuk orang kulit hitam tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Berkecil hati tetapi bertekad, kaum feminis bekerja tanpa lelah untuk memengaruhi semakin banyak wanita untuk menuntut hak untuk memilih. Pada tahun 1869, Wilayah Wyoming telah menyerah pada tuntutan oleh kaum feminis, tetapi negara-negara di Pantai Timur menentang lebih keras kepala daripada sebelumnya. RUU hak pilih perempuan telah diajukan ke setiap Kongres sejak 1878, tetapi RUU itu terus gagal disahkan hingga 1920, ketika Amandemen Kesembilan Belas memberi perempuan hak untuk memilih.

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

Paragraph 1 

During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves

Paragraph 2 

A number of male abolitionists, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities

Paragraph 3

When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women

6. Make a summary of the passage

During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves. Some women saw similarities in the social status of women and slaves.

Reading comprehension 4

Question:

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

 

Status: 100%

Information: already done

Prove:

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

The body of an adult insect is subdivided into three sections, including a head, a three-segment thorax, and segmented abdomen. Ordinarily, the thorax bears three pairs of legs and a single or double pair of wings. The vision of most adult insects is specialized through two large compound eyes and multiple simple eyes.

Features of an insect’s mouth parts are used in classifying insects into types. Biting mouth parts, called mandibles, such as the mouth parts found in grasshoppers and beetles, are common among insects. Behind the mandibles are located the maxillae, or lower jaw parts, which serve to direct food into the mouth between the jaws. A labrum above and one below are similar to another animal’s upper and lower lips. In an insect with a sucking mouth function, the mandibles, maxillae, labrum, and labium are modified in such a way that they constitute a tube through which liquid such as water, blood, or flower nectar can be drawn. In a butterfly or moth, this coiled drinking tube is called the proboscis because of its resemblance, in miniature, to the trunk of an elephant or a very large nose. Composed chiefly of modified maxillae fitted together, the insect’s proboscis can be flexed and extended to reach nectar deep in a flower. In mosquitoes or aphids, mandibles and maxillae are modified to sharp stylets with which the insect can drill through surfaces like human or vegetable skin membranes to reach juice. In a housefly, the expanding labium forms a spongelike mouth pad that it can use to stamp over the surface of food, sopping up food particles and juices.

Insects, the most numerous creatures on our planet, are also them most adaptable. They require little food because they are small. They easily find shelter and protection in small crevices in trees and surface geological formations. Species of insects can evolve quickly because of their rapid reproduction cycle; they live in every climate, some making their homes in the frozen Arctic regions and many others choosing the humid, warm, and nutrient-rich rain forest environment. An active part of the natural food cycle, insects provide nutrition for animals and devour waste products of other life forms.

 

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  1. surfaces       : permukaan
  2. spongelike  : makhluk air sejenis sepon
  3. sopping        : membasahi
  4. numerous   : banyak
  5. Ordinarily    : Biasanya
  6. Resemblance  : kemiripan , persamaan, kesamaan, serupa
  7. Mandibles : rahang bawah

 

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

  1. What is the best title for this passage?
  • A. An Insect’s Environment
  • B. The Structure of an Insect
  • C. Grasshoppers and Beetles
  • D. The Stages of Life of an Insect

 

2. How are insects classified?

  • A. By the environment in which they live
  • B. By the food they eat
  • C. By the structure of the mouth
  • D. By the number and type of wings

 

3. The word common in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?

  • A. normal
  • B. rare
  • C.  important
  • D.  necessary

 

4. The author compares labrum and labium to?

  • A. an upper and lower lip
  • B. mandibles
  • C.  maxillae
  • D.  jaws

 

5.What is the proboscis?

  • A. Nectar
  • B. A tube constructed of modified maxillae
  • C. A kind of butterfly
  • D. A kind of flower

 

  1. Which of the following have mandibles and maxillae that have been modified to sharp stylets?
  • Grasshoppers
  • Butterflies
  • C.  Mosquitoes
  • D.  Houseflies

 

  1. The phrase drill through in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by?
  • A. penetrate
  • B. saturate
  • C.  explore
  • D.  distinguish

 

  1. The word it in paragraph 2 refers to?
  • A. pad
  • B. food
  • C.  housefly
  • D.  mouth

 

  1. What is the purpose of this passage?
  • A. To complain
  • B. To persuade
  • C. To entertain
  • D. To inform

 

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Tubuh serangga dewasa dibagi menjadi tiga bagian, termasuk kepala, dada tiga segment, dan perut Segmented. Biasanya, rongga dada menampung tiga pasang kaki dan sepasang sayap tunggal atau ganda. Visi sebagian besar dari serangga dewasa adalah spesialisasi melalui dua mata besar dan mata sederhana.

Fitur bagian mulut serangga digunakan dalam mengklasifikasikan serangga ke dalam beberapa jenis. Bagian mulut yang menggigit, disebut mandibles, seperti pada bagian mulut yang ditemukan pada belalang dan kumbang, itu umum di antara serangga. Di belakang rahang terletak rahang atas, atau bagian rahang bawah, yang berfungsi untuk mengarahkan makanan ke mulut di antara rahang. Labrum di atas dan di bawah mirip dengan bibir atas dan bawah hewan lain. Pada serangga dengan fungsi menghisap pada mulut, mandibula, rahang atas, labrum, dan labium dimodifikasi sedemikian rupa sehingga mereka membentuk sebuah tabung melalui cairan seperti air, darah, atau nektar bunga agar dapat ditarik. Dalam kupu-kupu atau ngengat, tabung minum melingkar ini disebut belalai karena kemiripannya, dalam bentuk mini, seperti belalai gajah atau hidung yang sangat besar. Terdiri dari maksila modifikasi yang dipasang bersama-sama, belalai serangga dapat ditekuk dan diperluas untuk mencapai nektar di dalam bunga yang jauh. Pada nyamuk atau kutu daun, rahang bawah dan rahang atas dimodifikasi menjadi stylets tajam yang dengan itu serangga tersebut dapat mengebor permukaan seperti membran kulit manusia atau sayuran untuk mendapatkan jus. Dalam lalat rumah, labium yang mengembang membentuk bantalan mulut seperti spons yang dapat digunakan untuk membasahi permukaan makanan, menyedot partikel makanan dan jus.

Serangga, makhluk paling banyak di planet kita, juga merupakan makhluk yang paling mudah beradaptasi. Mereka membutuhkan sedikit makanan karena mereka kecil. Mereka dengan mudah menemukan tempat berlindung dan mendapatkan perlindungan di celah-celah kecil di pohon dan formasi geologi permukaan. Spesies serangga dapat berevolusi dengan cepat karena siklus reproduksinya yang cepat; mereka hidup dalam setiap iklim, beberapa dari serangga membuat rumah mereka di daerah Kutub Utara yang beku dan banyak lainnya memilih lingkungan hutan hujan yang lembab, hangat, dan kaya nutrisi. Sebagai bagian aktif dari siklus makanan alami, serangga memberikan nutrisi bagi hewan dan melahap produk limbah dari bentuk kehidupan lainnya.

 

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

Paragraph 1 :

  • The body of an adult insect is subdivided into three sections, including a head, a three-segment thorax, and a segmented abdomen.

Paragraph 2 :

  • Each type of insect mouth has a different function. For example, an awl or a suckermouth serves to suck the nectar of flowers. But the mosquito sucker mouth serves to penetrate the human skin.

Paragraph 3 :

  • Number of insects more than humans on earth. Estimated 30-80 million species. Because insects can easily breed. Insects are an omnipresent part of our earth.

 

6. Make a summary of the passage

Body parts of insects, insects have various types of mouth, body, etc. some insects also make houses in the frozen Arctic regions and many others choosing the humid, warm, and nutrient-rich rain forest environment.

 

Reading Comprehension 4

Question:

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

Status: 100% Done

Info: I’ve already done these Assignments

Prove:

 

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

 The body of an adult insect is subdivided into three sections, including a head, a three-segment thorax, and segmented abdomen. Ordinarily, the thorax bears three pairs of legs and a single or double pair of wings. The vision of most adult insects is specialized through two large compound eyes and multiple simple eyes.

            Features of an insect’s mouth parts are used in classifying insects into types. Biting mouth parts, called mandibles, such as the mouth parts found in grasshoppers and beetles, are common among insects. Behind the mandibles are located the maxillae, or lower jaw parts, which serve to direct food into the mouth between the jaws. A labrum above and one below are similar to another animal’s upper and lower lips. In an insect with a sucking mouth function, the mandibles, maxillae, labrum, and labium are modified in such a way that they constitute a tube through which liquid such as water, blood, or flower nectar can be drawn. In a butterfly or moth, this coiled drinking tube is called the proboscis because of its resemblance, in miniature, to the trunk of an elephant or a very large nose. Composed chiefly of modified maxillae fitted together, the insect’s proboscis can be flexed and extended to reach nectar deep in a flower. In mosquitoes or aphids, mandibles and maxillae are modified to sharp stylets with which the insect can drill through surfaces like human or vegetable skin membranes to reach juice. In a housefly, the expanding labium forms a spongelike mouth pad that it can use to stamp over the surface of food, sopping up food particles and juices.

            Insects, the most numerous creatures on our planet, are also them most adaptable. They require little food because they are small. They easily find shelter and protection in small crevices in trees and surface geological formations. Species of insects can evolve quickly because of their rapid reproduction cycle; they live in every climate, some making their homes in the frozen Arctic regions and many others choosing the humid, warm, and nutrient-rich rain forest environment. An active part of the natural food cycle, insects provide nutrition for animals and devour waste products of other life forms.

 

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

  1. surfaces        : permukaan
  2. spongelike   : makhluk air sejenis sepon
  3. sopping        : membasahi
  4. numerous     : banyak
  5. crevices        : retak
  6. evolve            : menyusun
  7. humid            : lembah
  8. devour           : menelan
  9. proboscis     : belalai
  10. resemblance: kemiripan

 

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

 

  1. What is the best title for this passage?
  • A. An Insect’s Environment
  • B. The Structure of an Insect
  • C. Grasshoppers and Beetles
  • D. The Stages of Life of an Insect

 

2. How are insects classified?

  • A. By the environment in which they live
  • B. By the food they eat
  • C. By the structure of the mouth
  • D. By the number and type of wings

 

3. The word common in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?

  • A. normal
  • B. rare
  • C.  important
  • D.  necessary

 

4. The author compares labrum and labium to?

  • A. an upper and lower lip
  • B. mandibles
  • C.  maxillae
  • D.  jaws

 

5.What is the proboscis?

  • A. Nectar
  • B. A tube constructed of modified maxillae
  • C. A kind of butterfly
  • D. A kind of flower

 

  1. Which of the following have mandibles and maxillae that have been modified to sharp stylets?
  • Grasshoppers
  • Butterflies
  • C.  Mosquitoes
  • D.  Houseflies

 

  1. The phrase drill through in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by?
  • A. penetrate
  • B. saturate
  • C.  explore
  • D.  distinguish

 

  1. The word it in paragraph 2 refers to?
  • A. pad
  • B. food
  • C.  housefly
  • D.  mouth

 

  1. What is the purpose of this passage?
  • A. To complain
  • B. To persuade
  • C. To entertain
  • D. To inform

 

4. Translate the passage into Indonesian language

Tubuh serangga dewasa dibagi menjadi tiga bagian, termasuk kepala, dada tiga segment, dan perut Segmented. Biasanya, rongga dada menampung tiga pasang kaki dan sepasang sayap tunggal atau ganda. Visi sebagian besar dari serangga dewasa adalah spesialisasi  melalui dua mata  besar dan  mata sederhana.

Fitur bagian mulut serangga digunakan dalam mengklasifikasikan serangga ke dalam beberapa jenis. Bagian mulut yang menggigit, disebut mandibles, seperti pada bagian mulut yang ditemukan pada belalang dan kumbang, itu umum di antara serangga. Di belakang rahang terletak rahang atas, atau bagian rahang bawah, yang berfungsi untuk mengarahkan makanan ke mulut di antara rahang. Labrum di atas dan di bawah mirip dengan bibir atas dan bawah hewan lain. Pada serangga dengan fungsi menghisap pada mulut, mandibula, rahang atas, labrum, dan labium dimodifikasi sedemikian rupa sehingga mereka membentuk sebuah tabung melalui cairan seperti air, darah, atau nektar bunga agar dapat ditarik. Dalam kupu-kupu atau ngengat, tabung minum melingkar ini disebut belalai karena kemiripannya, dalam bentuk mini, seperti belalai gajah atau hidung yang sangat besar. Terdiri dari maksila modifikasi yang dipasang bersama-sama, belalai serangga dapat ditekuk dan diperluas untuk mencapai nektar di dalam bunga yang jauh. Pada nyamuk atau kutu daun, rahang bawah dan rahang atas dimodifikasi menjadi stylets tajam yang dengan itu serangga tersebut dapat mengebor permukaan seperti membran kulit manusia atau sayuran untuk mendapatkan jus. Dalam lalat rumah, labium yang mengembang membentuk bantalan mulut seperti spons yang dapat digunakan untuk membasahi permukaan makanan, menyedot partikel makanan dan jus.

Serangga, makhluk paling banyak di planet kita, juga merupakan makhluk yang paling mudah beradaptasi. Mereka membutuhkan sedikit makanan karena mereka kecil. Mereka dengan mudah menemukan tempat berlindung dan mendapatkan perlindungan di celah-celah kecil di pohon dan formasi geologi permukaan. Spesies serangga dapat berevolusi dengan cepat karena siklus reproduksinya yang cepat; mereka hidup dalam setiap iklim, beberapa dari serangga membuat rumah mereka di daerah Kutub Utara yang beku dan banyak lainnya memilih lingkungan hutan hujan yang lembab, hangat, dan kaya nutrisi. Sebagai bagian aktif dari siklus makanan alami, serangga memberikan nutrisi bagi hewan dan melahap produk limbah dari bentuk kehidupan lainnya.

 

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

 

Paragraph 1 :

  • The body of an adult insect is subdivided into three sections, including a head, a three-segment thorax, and a segmented abdomen. Which is can distinguish the immature insects.

Paragraph 2 :

  • Each type of insect mouth has a different function. For example, an awl or a suckermouth serves to suck the nectar of flowers. But the mosquito sucker mouth serves to penetrate the human skin.

Paragraph 3 :

  • Number of insects more than humans on earth. Estimated 30-80 million species. Because insects can easily breed. Insects are an omnipresent part of our earth.

 

6. Make a summary of the passage

Body parts of insects, insects have various types of mouth, body, etc. some insects also make houses in the frozen Arctic regions and many others choosing the humid, warm, and nutrient-rich rain forest environment.